Political causes : The policy of Doctorine of Lapse.
Economic causes : Heavy taxation, evictions, discriminatory tariff policy against Indian products and destruction of traditional handicrafts that hit peasants, artisans and small zamindars.
Military discrimination : Indian soldiers were paid low salaries, they could not rise above the rank of subedar and were racially insulted.
Religious discrimination : The introduction of Enfield rifle, the cartridge of which was geased with animal fat, provided the spark. Social reforms like widow remarriage, abolition of sati, education for girls and Christian missionaries.