An Introduction about Vedic Literature

Among the four parts of the Vedas, Rigveda is the oldest Indo-European language text is a collection of hymns. It has contains 1028 hymns and 10 mandalas. In the 10th Mandala contains four varnas or Purushukta whereas 3rd Mandala contains Gayatri Mantra dedicated to Surya (Sun God). In Samaveda, collection of melodies contains Dhrupad Raga. Contains hymns and rituals and sacrifices in Yajurveda. Charms and spells to ward-off evils and diseases are described in Atharvaveda. Each veda has several Brahmanas attach to four vedas, contains ritualistic formulae and explains the social and religious meaning of rituals. Then Aranyakas and Upanishadas, the word of Aranya means the forest. Works were called Aranyakas because they were written mainly by the hermits and students living in jungle. The philosophical texts of Upanishadas emphasising value of right belief and knowledge, criticized rituals, sacrifices and are 108 in number. Vribadaranyaka is the oldest Upanishadas. Then Smritis, Vedangas, Darshans, Upavedas and Epics.


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